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Innskrįning
Hér er aš finna allar skrįšar upplżsingar um hugtakiš.
Śr oršasafninu Cedefop, oršaskrį um evrópska menntastefnu    
[enska] knowledge
[skilgr.] The outcome of the assimilation of information through learning. Knowledge is the body of facts, principles, theories and practices that is related to a field of study or work.
[aths.] There are numerous definitions of knowledge. Nevertheless, modern conceptions of knowledge rest broadly on several basic distinctions:
(a) Aristotle distinguished between theoretical and practical logic. In line with this distinction, modern theoreticians (Alexander et al., 1991) distinguish declarative (theoretical) knowledge from procedural (practical) knowledge. Declarative knowledge includes assertions on specific events, facts and empirical generalisations, as well as deeper principles on the nature of reality. Procedural knowledge includes heuristics, methods, plans, practices, procedures, routines, strategies, tactics, techniques and tricks (Ohlsson, 1994);
(b) it is possible to differentiate between forms of knowledge which represent different ways of learning about the world. Various attempts have been made to compile such lists, the following categories seem to be frequently represented:
– objective (natural/scientific) knowledge, judged on the basis of certainty;
– subjective (literary/aesthetic) knowledge judged on the basis of authenticity;
– moral (human/normative) knowledge judged on the basis of collective acceptance (right/wrong);
– religious/divine knowledge judged by reference to a divine authority (God).
This basic understanding of knowledge underpins the questions we ask, the methods we use and the answers we give in our search for knowledge;
(c) knowledge encompasses tacit and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge (Polanyi, 1967) is knowledge learners possess which influences cognitive processing. However, they may not necessarily express it or be aware of it. Explicit knowledge is knowledge a learner is conscious of, including tacit knowledge that converts into an explicit form by becoming an ‘object of thought’ (Prawat, 1989).
[ķslenska] žekking
[sh.] kunnįtta
[skilgr.] Afrakstur žeirra upplżsinga sem aflaš er meš nįmi. Žekking er heildarsafn stašreynda, meginreglna, kenninga og starfsferla sem tengjast fręšasviši eša starfi.
[aths.] Margar skilgreiningar eru til į žekkingu. Samt sem įšur byggjast nśtķma hugmyndir um žekkingu ķ stórum drįttum į aš geršur sé greinarmunur į nokkrum grundvallaratrišum:
(a) Aristóteles greindi milli fręšilegrar og hagnżtrar žekkingar. Ķ samręmi viš žennan mun greina nśtķma fręšimenn (Alexander o. fl., 1991) milli skilgreiningaržekkingar (fręšilegrar) og ašferšaržekkingar (hagnżtrar žekkingar). Skilgreingaržekking felur ķ sér stašhęfingar um įkvešna atburši, stašreyndir og alhęfingar raunvķsindanna, auk djśpstęšari grundvallarreglna um ešli raunveruleikans. Ašferšaržekking nęr til žekkingarleitar, ašferša, įętlana, verklags, starfshįtta, reglubundinna venja, stefnumörkunar, śrręša, tęknibeitingar og bragša (Ohlsson, 1994);
(b) Hęgt er aš greina į milli žekkingargerša sem vķsa til mismunandi ašferša viš aš fręšast um heiminn. Żmsar tilraunir hafa veriš geršar til setja saman lista yfir slķkar geršir, en eftirfarandi flokkar koma žar gjarna fyrir:
- hlutlęg (nįttśruleg/vķsindaleg) žekking, metin śt frį fullvissu;
- huglęg (bókmenntaleg/fagurfręšileg) žekking, metin śt frį įreišanleika;
- sišferšileg (mannleg/forskriftar-) žekking, metin śt frį almennri višurkenningu (rétt/rangt)
- trśarleg/gušleg žekking, metin meš tilvķsun til gušlegs valds (gušs).
Žęr spurningar sem viš spyrjum, žęr ašferšir sem viš beitum og žau svör sem viš gefum ķ leit okkar aš žekkingu byggjast į žessum grundvallarskilningi į žekkingu.
(c) Žekking nęr til bęši skrįšrar žekkingar og žeirrar sem er undirskilin. Undirskilin žekking (Polanyi, 1967) er sś žekking sem nemendur bśa yfir og hefur įhrif į vitsmunastarfsemi žeirra. Samt sem įšur lįta žeir hana ekkert endilega ķ ljósi eša gera sér jafnvel ekki grein fyrir henni. Sś žekking sem kemur fram ķ oršum er žekking sem nemandinn gerir sér grein fyrir og er žį meštalin sś undirskilda žekking sem breytist ķ yrta žekkingu meš žvķ aš verša ‚višfang hugsunar‛ (Prawat, 1989).
Leita aftur